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Features of the town include the Presidential Palace , the cathedral , and a cinema. The town is well known for the tchiloli playing.

The wet season runs from October through May while the dry season covers the remaining four months. The following Portuguese international schools are in the city: [8].

The main hospital of the country is Hospital Ayres de Menezes. Coat of arms. The invention of the white race Second ed. London: Verso.

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Engage with ICP from Anywhere. We Need Your Support. ICP's museum is open! John named Pedro regent for Brazil in his name and left for Lisbon on 25 April after a stay of thirteen years in Brazil, a country he would always miss.

The ships bringing John and his court arrived in Lisbon on 3 July. His return was orchestrated in such a manner as not to imply that the king had been coerced, but in fact a new political environment had already been established.

It called for him to surrender various prerogatives. Dona Carlota refused to follow her husband in agreeing to this, and thus was dispossessed of her political rights and deposed of her title as queen.

Meanwhile, the king lost out in Brazil as well. His son Pedro, opting to stay in that country, led a revolt that proclaimed Brazilian independence on ; as part of this action, he assumed the title of emperor of Brazil.

In any event, later correspondence between the two shows the prince's concern not to disturb his father. The liberal constitution to which the king had sworn loyalty was in effect only for a few months.

Not everyone in Portugal supported liberalism, and an absolutist movement arose. On 27 May, the infante Dom Miguel, instigated by his mother Dona Carlota, led another revolt known as the Vilafrancada , with the intent of restoring absolutism.

John changed the game by supporting his son to avoid his own deposition which was desired by the party of the queen and appeared in public on his birthday alongside his son, who wore a uniform of the National Guard, a military corps that had been disbanded by the liberals, receiving the applause of the militia.

The king personally went to Vila Franca to better administer the uprising, ultimately returning to Lisbon in triumph. The political climate was undecided, and even the staunchest defenders of liberalism feared to take a strong stand on its behalf.

Before its dissolution, the Cortes protested against any change in the recently approved constitution, but the absolute regime was restored, [12] [57] the queen's rights re-established, and the king acclaimed for a second time on 5 June.

John repressed demonstrations against this restoration, deported some of the liberals and arrested others, ordered the restoration of judiciary and institutions more in line with the new political orientation and created a commission to draft a basis for a new charter to replace the constitution.

The alliance with the infante Miguel did not bear fruit. Influenced as always by his mother, Miguel led the April Revolt or Abrilada by the Lisbon military garrison on 29 April The revolt started on the pretext of crushing the Freemasons and defending the king from threats of death that the Masons has supposedly made against him, but John was taken into custody at the Bemposta Palace , while several of Miguel's political enemies of Miguel's were also imprisoned elsewhere.

The infante's intent was to force his father to abdicate. Alerted to the situation, the diplomatic corps managed to enter Bemposta Palace.

Those who held the king could not resist such authorities and restored a measure of freedom to the king. On 9 May, on the advice of friendly ambassadors, John pretended to travel to Caxias but, in fact, sought refuge with a British fleet anchored in the port.

From aboard the ship HMS Windsor Castle , he reprimanded his son, deposed him from command of the army, and ordered him to release his political prisoners.

Miguel was exiled. With the defeat of the rebellion, both liberals and absolutists came out into the streets to celebrate the survival of the legitimate government.

Still, this did not dissuade the queen from further conspiracies. The police discovered another rebellion planned for 26 October, on the basis of which John placed his wife under house arrest in Queluz Palace.

At the end of his reign, King John ordered the creation of a free port in Lisbon, but the measure was not implemented.

On 5 June he granted amnesty to those involved in the Porto uprising, except for nine officers who were exiled. On the same day, the old constitution of the kingdom came back into force, and the Cortes reconvened to prepare a new text.

The change of constitution faced several obstacles, mainly from Spain and from supporters of the queen.

Portugal's biggest problems at this time, however, related to the independence of Brazil, which had been the country's largest source of wealth.

The loss of Brazil had a great negative impact on the Portuguese economy. An expedition to reconquer the former colony was even considered, but the idea was soon abandoned.

Difficult negotiations and consultations undertaken in Europe in Rio de Janeiro with British mediation and pressure resulted in the final recognition of the independence on 29 August At the same time, the king freed all the Brazilians who were prisoners and authorized trade between both nations.

Brazil was required to pay certain funds that it had borrowed from Portugal. Nothing in the treaty spoke of the succession of the two crowns, but Pedro, still acting as the Prince Royal of Portugal and Algarve, implicitly remained heir to the Portuguese throne.

On 4 March , John returned from the Hieronymites Monastery where he had lunched and retired to Bemposta Palace feeling poorly. He was racked for several days by symptoms including vomiting and convulsions.

He appeared to be getting better, but by way of prudence designated his daughter, the infanta Isabel Maria , as regent.

On the night of 9 March, he took a turn for the worse and died at approximately 5 a. The infanta immediately assumed the internal government of Portugal, and Pedro was recognized as the legitimate heir as Dom Pedro IV of Portugal.

Doctors could not definitively determine a cause of death, but it was suspected that he had been poisoned. Fragments of his heart were rehydrated and submitted to an analysis that detected enough arsenic to kill two people, confirming longstanding suspicions of assassination by poison.

As a youth, John was a retiring figure, heavily influenced by the clergy, and lived surrounded by priests and attending daily Mass in the church.

Nonetheless, Oliveira Lima affirms that rather than being an expression of personal piety, this merely reflected Portuguese culture at that time, and that the king Because of this, he was repeatedly the guest of monks and patron to composers of sacred music , but none of these Epicurean or artistic demonstrations compromised his free thought or denatured his skeptical tolerance.

He made more use of the refectory of the monastery than of its chapel, because [the latter] was about observance and in [the former] one thought of gastronomy, and in terms of observance the pragmatic one was enough for him.

In the Royal Chapel he more took pleasure with the senses than he prayed with the spirit: andantes took the place of meditations. He had a great appreciation of sacred music and was a great reader of works about art, but he detested physical activity.

He appeared to have suffered periodic crises of depression. He suffered from panic attacks when he heard thunder, staying in his rooms with the windows shut and receiving no one.

John's marriage was never a happy one. She became pregnant, and John was suspected of being the father.

The case was hushed up, and the young woman was sent to Spain to bear the child. She gave birth to a daughter, whose name is unknown. The mother lived the rest of her life in nunneries and John supported her financially.

In the precarious and spare environment of Rio, the king's personal habits were simple. In contrast to his relative isolation in Portugal, he became more personally dynamic and interested in nature.

He went hunting and happily slept in a tent or under a tree. He liked the countryside, despite the swarms of mosquitoes and other pests and the scorching heat of the tropics that were detested by the majority of the Portuguese and other foreigners.

John's policies led to far-reaching economic changes, beginning with the opening of the ports and the abolition of the Portuguese commercial monopolies, with the United Kingdom being the great beneficiary.

On the one hand, traders based in Brazil had to face strong foreign competition; on the other, it encouraged the creation of new manufacturing and other economic activities that were previously banned, poor or nonexistent in Brazil.

That image is very varied, "but rarely for good reason. It is not strange that the tribulations of his marriage and family life and the references to his personality and personal customs, inviting easy caricature and circulation of an unflattering, if not comic, tradition.

That work had enormous repercussions, but, according to the critical commentary of Ronaldo Vainfas, "it is a story full of errors of all types, misrepresentations, imprecisions, inventions"; [82] for historian Luiz Carlos Villalta, "it constitutes a broad attack on historical knowledge", [83] in contrast to director Carla Camurati 's stated intent "to produce a cinematic narrative that would constitute a type of historical novel with pedagogic function and, at the same time, would offer the viewer knowledge of the past and would help, as a people, to think about the present.

It does not offer new historical knowledge to the viewer, even if one were to treat history as a novel: it reinforces, in truth, the ideas that the viewers bring, being zero in terms of increased knowledge In this way, it leads the viewer more to debauchery than to critical reflection on the history of Brazil".

Diverse visual representations of John range from an overweight, oversized, sloppy appearance to a dignified and elegant character. While some pointed to his countenance of a statesman, others considered him a coward and completely unprepared to govern.

In governing, John always depended on strong auxiliaries. He was placed in new circumstances by which he was tested, bowing before them with patience; if incited, he acted with vigor and promptness".

On the contrary, he found many accounts that painted him in favorable colors, such as the testimonies left by the British consul Henderson and the U.

He asserted his authority without violence, more in a persuasive and affable manner; his conduct of international affairs, although sometimes unsuccessful and somewhat given to imperialist ambitions, in many other ways was far-seeing and harmonious,as indicated by the many actions described above that improved the living conditions of the Brazilian colony.

Nonetheless, the French general Jean-Andoche Junot described him as "a weak man, suspicious of everyone and everything, jealous of his authority but incapable of making it respected.

Whatever the king's character may have been, the importance of his reign for a remarkable spurt of development for Brazil and, indeed, for the very unity of that nation is incontestable.

Gilberto Freyre affirms that "Dom John VI was one of the personalities who had the greatest influence over the formation of the nation Scholars such as Oliveira Lima, Maria Odila da Silva Dias, Roderick Barman and the aforementioned Laurentino believe that had John not come to the Americas and installed a strong central government, probably the large territory of Brazil, with important regional differences, would have fragmented into several distinct nations, as occurred with the vast neighboring Spanish colony.

This opinion was shared by the British admiral Sir Sidney Smith , commander of the squadron that escorted the Portuguese ships as the fled to Brazil.

Recent biographies try to separate fact from legend and counter the folklore of ridicule that had formed around King John and which lacks documentary basis.

Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations, which means that John VI is, ultimately, a member of the Robertian dynasty.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. King of Portugal. Portrait by Domingos Sequeira , c. Pantheon of the Braganzas , Lisbon, Portugal.

Carlota Joaquina of Spain. Main article: Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil. Main article: List of titles and honours of the Portuguese Crown.

Andrew , 16 February Knight of St. Alexander Nevsky , 16 February Knight of St. Louis []. Ancestors of John VI of Portugal [] 8. Peter II of Portugal 4.

John V of Portugal 9. Maria Sophia of Neuburg 2. Peter III of Portugal Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor 5.

Maria Anna of Austria Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg 1. John VI of Portugal Joseph I of Portugal Maria I of Portugal and Brazil Philip V of Spain 7.

Mariana Victoria of Spain Elisabeth Farnese. Companhia das Letras, , pp. In Portuguese.



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